Cell-free DNA screening for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in pregnancies at low and high risk for aneuploidy with genetic confirmation

Pe'er Dar, Bo Jacobsson, Cora MacPherson, Melissa Egbert, Fergal Malone, Ronald J. Wapner, Ashley S. Roman, Asma Khalil, Revital Faro, Rajeevi Madankumar, Lance Edwards, Sina Haeri, Robert Silver, Nidhi Vohra, Jon Hyett, Garfield Clunie, Zachary Demko, Kimberly Martin, Matthew Rabinowitz, Karen FloodYlva Carlsson, Georgios Doulaveris, Ciara Malone, Maria Hallingstrom, Susan Klugman, Rebecca Clifton, Charlly Kao, Hakon Hakonarson, Mary E. Norton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Cell-free DNA noninvasive prenatal screening for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 has been rapidly adopted into clinical practice. However, previous studies are limited by a lack of follow-up genetic testing to confirm the outcomes and accurately assess test performance, particularly in women at a low risk for aneuploidy. Objective: To measure and compare the performance of cell-free DNA screening for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 between women at a low and high risk for aneuploidy in a large, prospective cohort with genetic confirmation of results Study Design: This was a multicenter prospective observational study at 21 centers in 6 countries. Women who had single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based cell-free DNA screening for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 were enrolled. Genetic confirmation was obtained from prenatal or newborn DNA samples. The test performance and test failure (no-call) rates were assessed for the cohort, and women with low and high previous risks for aneuploidy were compared. An updated cell-free DNA algorithm blinded to the pregnancy outcome was also assessed. Results: A total of 20,194 women were enrolled at a median gestational age of 12.6 weeks (interquartile range, 11.6–13.9). The genetic outcomes were confirmed in 17,851 cases (88.4%): 13,043 (73.1%) low-risk and 4808 (26.9%) high-risk cases for aneuploidy. Overall, 133 trisomies were diagnosed (100 trisomy 21; 18 trisomy 18; 15 trisomy 13). The cell-free DNA screen positive rate was lower in the low-risk vs the high-risk group (0.27% vs 2.2%; P<.0001). The sensitivity and specificity were similar between the groups. The positive predictive value for the low- and high-risk groups was 85.7% vs 97.5%; P=.058 for trisomy 21; 50.0% vs 81.3%; P=.283 for trisomy 18; and 62.5% vs 83.3; P=.58 for trisomy 13, respectively. Overall, 602 (3.4%) patients had no-call result after the first draw and 287 (1.61%) after including cases with a second draw. The trisomy rate was higher in the 287 cases with no-call results than patients with a result on a first draw (2.8% vs 0.7%; P=.001). The updated algorithm showed similar sensitivity and specificity to the study algorithm with a lower no-call rate. Conclusion: In women at a low risk for aneuploidy, single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based cell-free DNA has high sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value of 85.7% for trisomy 21 and 74.3% for the 3 common trisomies. Patients who receive a no-call result are at an increased risk of aneuploidy and require additional investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259.e1-259.e14
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Volume227
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • aneuploidy
  • cell-free DNA
  • prenatal screening
  • trisomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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