Cellular ESCRT machinery plays pivotal role in HIV-1 budding and release. Extracellular stimuli that modulate HIV-1 egress are currently unknown. We found that CCL2 induced by HIV-1 clade B (HIV-1B) infection of macrophages enhanced virus production, while CCL2 immunodepletion reversed this effect. Additionally, HIV-1 clade C (HIV-1C) was refractory to CCL2 levels. We show that CCL2-mediated increase in virus production requires Gag late motif LYPX present in HIV-1B, but absent in HIV-1C, and ALIX protein that recruits ESCRT III complex. CCL2 immunodepletion sequestered ALIX to F-actin structures, while CCL2 addition mobilized it to cytoplasm facilitating Gag-ALIX binding. The LYPX motif improves virus replication and its absence renders the virus less fit. Interestingly, novel variants of HIV-1C with PYRE/PYKE tetrapeptide insertions in Gag-p6 conferred ALIX binding, CCL2-responsiveness and enhanced virus replication. These results, for the first time, indicate that CCL2 mediates ALIX mobilization from F-actin and enhances HIV-1 release and fitness.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)