Background The management of acute thrombosis of inferior vena cava (AT-IVC) has evolved to catheter-based therapies, the results of which remain uncertain. We report our institution's experience treating AT-IVC using endovascular methods. Methods A 10-year retrospective review of patients presenting with symptomatic IVC thrombosis between the years 2005 and 2014 was performed. Demographic data, treatment modalities, and outcomes were reviewed. Results Twenty-five patients (44% men) underwent treatment for acute (<2 weeks) symptomatic IVC thrombosis. Presenting symptoms included pain and limb swelling in 23 (92%), motor dysfunction in 16 (64%), sensory loss in 14 (56%), and pulmonary embolism (PE) in 2 (8%) patients. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens was present in 5 patients, a history of malignancy was identified in 7 patients, and 21 patients had an IVC filter at presentation (Trapease 12, G2X 3, Option 2, Eclipse 2, Meridian 2). Four patients had a documented hypercoagulable state, 21 patients underwent venous angioplasty, and 7 (28%) patients underwent venous stenting of the IVC or iliofemoral veins. Significant (>50% luminal gain) angiographic resolution of venous thrombus was achieved in all 25 patients. Twenty-one (84%) patients reported moderate-to-complete symptomatic improvement immediately after completion of the procedures. Two patients had a clinically symptomatic PE and 1 patient underwent an above-knee amputation secondary to venous gangrene. Other complications included 6 minor bleeding complications (2 local hematoma, 4 hematuria) all of which resolved spontaneously. There were 2 major bleeding complications (1 disseminated intravascular coagulation, 1 retroperitoneal hematoma). Conclusions Endovascular treatment of AT-IVC, regardless of etiology, is safe and effective with excellent short-term clinical results. An aggressive endovascular approach to treatment of AT-IVC is warranted even in the presence of a thrombosed vena cava filter.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine