Purpose: This study aims to report on catathrenia occurring in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) patients under sodium oxybate (SO) treatment. Catathrenia is a parasomnia characterized by groaning and an abnormal respiratory pattern during sleep. Methods: Fifty-one patients with NC and starting SO therapy underwent a baseline overnight polysomnography (PSG) to detect any sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). To avoid risks due to a possible central respiratory control depression by SO, all patients with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were treated with a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) device. After 2 months of treatment with SO, all patients underwent a follow-up overnight PSG to investigate possible newly occurring SRBD. They also underwent a semi-structured clinical interview to monitor other potential SO side effects. Results: At baseline, four out of 51 patients showed simple snoring, and eight, mild to severe OSA. After a titration PSG night, patients with OSA received a nCPAP device. After 2 months of SO treatment, 28 patients (54.9%) showed SO-related side effects, including SRBD in 11 (21.6%). The follow-up PSG showed a respiratory pattern characteristic of catathrenia in seven patients (13.7%) as a newly observed and possibly benign SO side effect, and ruled out a worsening of OSA. Conclusions: Catathrenia should be considered a possible side effect in NC patients under SO treatment and should be accurately identified to prevent unnecessary SO withdrawal.
- Side effect
- Sleep apnea
- Sleep-related breathing disorders
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology