Catalytic and regulatory site composition of yeast AMP deaminase by comparative binding and rate studies: Resolution of the cooperative mechanism

David J. Merkler, Vern L. Schramm

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Abstract

Yeast AMP deaminase is allosterically activated by ATP and MgATP and inhibited by GTP and PO4. The tetrameric enzyme binds 2 mol each of ATP, GTP, and PO4/subunit with Kd values of 8.4 ± 4.0, 4.1 ± 0.6, and 169 ± 12 μM, respectively. At 0.7 M KCl, ATP binds to the enzyme, but no longer activates. Titration with coformycin 5′-monophosphate, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor, indicates a single catalytic site/subunit. ATP and GTP bind at regulatory sites distinct from the catalytic site and their binding is mutually exclusive. Inorganic phosphate competes poorly with ATP for the ATP sites (Kd = 20.1 ± 4.1 mM). However, near-saturating ATP reduces the moles of phosphate bound per subunit to 1 PO4, which binds with a Kd = 275 ± 22 μM. In the presence of ATP, PO4 cannot effectively compete with ATP for the nucleotide triphosphate sites. The PO4 which binds in the presence of ATP is competitive with AMP at the catalytic site since the Kd equals the kinetic inhibition constant for PO4. Initial reaction rate curves are a cooperative function of AMP concentration and activation by ATP is also cooperative. However, no cooperativity is observed in the binding of any of the regulator ligands and ATP binding and kinetic activation by ATP is independent of substrate analog concentration. Cooperativity in initial rate curves results, therefore, from altered rate constants for product formation from each (enzyme-substrate)n species and not from cooperative substrate binding. The traditional cooperative binding models of allosteric regulation do not apply to yeast AMP deaminase, which regulates catalytic activity by kinetic control of product formation. The data are used to estimate the rates of AMP hydrolysis under reported metabolite concentrations in yeast.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4420-4426
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume265
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 15 1990

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AMP Deaminase
Yeast
Catalytic Domain
Adenosine Triphosphate
Yeasts
Chemical analysis
Adenosine Monophosphate
Guanosine Triphosphate
Kinetics
Coformycin
Substrates
Enzymes
Chemical activation
Phosphates
Allosteric Regulation
Metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Catalytic and regulatory site composition of yeast AMP deaminase by comparative binding and rate studies: Resolution of the cooperative mechanism",
abstract = "Yeast AMP deaminase is allosterically activated by ATP and MgATP and inhibited by GTP and PO4. The tetrameric enzyme binds 2 mol each of ATP, GTP, and PO4/subunit with Kd values of 8.4 ± 4.0, 4.1 ± 0.6, and 169 ± 12 μM, respectively. At 0.7 M KCl, ATP binds to the enzyme, but no longer activates. Titration with coformycin 5′-monophosphate, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor, indicates a single catalytic site/subunit. ATP and GTP bind at regulatory sites distinct from the catalytic site and their binding is mutually exclusive. Inorganic phosphate competes poorly with ATP for the ATP sites (Kd = 20.1 ± 4.1 mM). However, near-saturating ATP reduces the moles of phosphate bound per subunit to 1 PO4, which binds with a Kd = 275 ± 22 μM. In the presence of ATP, PO4 cannot effectively compete with ATP for the nucleotide triphosphate sites. The PO4 which binds in the presence of ATP is competitive with AMP at the catalytic site since the Kd equals the kinetic inhibition constant for PO4. Initial reaction rate curves are a cooperative function of AMP concentration and activation by ATP is also cooperative. However, no cooperativity is observed in the binding of any of the regulator ligands and ATP binding and kinetic activation by ATP is independent of substrate analog concentration. Cooperativity in initial rate curves results, therefore, from altered rate constants for product formation from each (enzyme-substrate)n species and not from cooperative substrate binding. The traditional cooperative binding models of allosteric regulation do not apply to yeast AMP deaminase, which regulates catalytic activity by kinetic control of product formation. The data are used to estimate the rates of AMP hydrolysis under reported metabolite concentrations in yeast.",
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T1 - Catalytic and regulatory site composition of yeast AMP deaminase by comparative binding and rate studies

T2 - Resolution of the cooperative mechanism

AU - Merkler, David J.

AU - Schramm, Vern L.

PY - 1990/3/15

Y1 - 1990/3/15

N2 - Yeast AMP deaminase is allosterically activated by ATP and MgATP and inhibited by GTP and PO4. The tetrameric enzyme binds 2 mol each of ATP, GTP, and PO4/subunit with Kd values of 8.4 ± 4.0, 4.1 ± 0.6, and 169 ± 12 μM, respectively. At 0.7 M KCl, ATP binds to the enzyme, but no longer activates. Titration with coformycin 5′-monophosphate, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor, indicates a single catalytic site/subunit. ATP and GTP bind at regulatory sites distinct from the catalytic site and their binding is mutually exclusive. Inorganic phosphate competes poorly with ATP for the ATP sites (Kd = 20.1 ± 4.1 mM). However, near-saturating ATP reduces the moles of phosphate bound per subunit to 1 PO4, which binds with a Kd = 275 ± 22 μM. In the presence of ATP, PO4 cannot effectively compete with ATP for the nucleotide triphosphate sites. The PO4 which binds in the presence of ATP is competitive with AMP at the catalytic site since the Kd equals the kinetic inhibition constant for PO4. Initial reaction rate curves are a cooperative function of AMP concentration and activation by ATP is also cooperative. However, no cooperativity is observed in the binding of any of the regulator ligands and ATP binding and kinetic activation by ATP is independent of substrate analog concentration. Cooperativity in initial rate curves results, therefore, from altered rate constants for product formation from each (enzyme-substrate)n species and not from cooperative substrate binding. The traditional cooperative binding models of allosteric regulation do not apply to yeast AMP deaminase, which regulates catalytic activity by kinetic control of product formation. The data are used to estimate the rates of AMP hydrolysis under reported metabolite concentrations in yeast.

AB - Yeast AMP deaminase is allosterically activated by ATP and MgATP and inhibited by GTP and PO4. The tetrameric enzyme binds 2 mol each of ATP, GTP, and PO4/subunit with Kd values of 8.4 ± 4.0, 4.1 ± 0.6, and 169 ± 12 μM, respectively. At 0.7 M KCl, ATP binds to the enzyme, but no longer activates. Titration with coformycin 5′-monophosphate, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor, indicates a single catalytic site/subunit. ATP and GTP bind at regulatory sites distinct from the catalytic site and their binding is mutually exclusive. Inorganic phosphate competes poorly with ATP for the ATP sites (Kd = 20.1 ± 4.1 mM). However, near-saturating ATP reduces the moles of phosphate bound per subunit to 1 PO4, which binds with a Kd = 275 ± 22 μM. In the presence of ATP, PO4 cannot effectively compete with ATP for the nucleotide triphosphate sites. The PO4 which binds in the presence of ATP is competitive with AMP at the catalytic site since the Kd equals the kinetic inhibition constant for PO4. Initial reaction rate curves are a cooperative function of AMP concentration and activation by ATP is also cooperative. However, no cooperativity is observed in the binding of any of the regulator ligands and ATP binding and kinetic activation by ATP is independent of substrate analog concentration. Cooperativity in initial rate curves results, therefore, from altered rate constants for product formation from each (enzyme-substrate)n species and not from cooperative substrate binding. The traditional cooperative binding models of allosteric regulation do not apply to yeast AMP deaminase, which regulates catalytic activity by kinetic control of product formation. The data are used to estimate the rates of AMP hydrolysis under reported metabolite concentrations in yeast.

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