Objectives: This study sought to assess the safety of carvedilol therapy among heart failure (HF) patients with a cocaine-use disorder (CUD). Background: Although carvedilol therapy is recommended among certain patients with HF, the safety and efficacy of carvedilol among HF patients with a CUD is unknown. Methods: This was a single-center study of hospitalized patients with HF. Cocaine use was self-reported or defined as having a positive urine toxicology. Patients were divided by carvedilol prescription. Subgroup analyses were performed by strata of ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%, 41% to 49%, or ≥50%. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were defined as cardiovascular mortality and 30-day HF readmission. Results: From a cohort of 2,578 patients hospitalized with HF in 2011, 503 patients with a CUD were identified, among whom 404 (80%) were prescribed carvedilol, and 99 (20%) were not. Both groups had similar characteristics; however, those prescribed carvedilol had a lower LVEF, heart rate, and N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations at admission and on discharge, and more coronary artery disease. Over a median follow-up of 19 months, there were 169 MACEs. The MACE rates were similar between the carvedilol and the non-carvedilol groups (32% vs. 38%, respectively; p = 0.16) and between those with a preserved EF (30% vs. 33%, respectively; p = 0.48) and were lower in patients with a reduced EF taking carvedilol (34% vs. 58%, respectively; p = 0.02). In a multivariate model, carvedilol therapy was associated with lower MACE among patients with HF with a CUD (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% confidence interval; 0.481 to 0.863). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that carvedilol therapy is safe for patients with HF with a CUD and may be effective among those with a reduced EF.
- cocaine-use disorder
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine