OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by rupture of the ventricular free wall or tamponade versus shock from other causes. BACKGROUND: Free-wall rupture is a recognized cause of mortality in patients with acute MI. Some of these patients present subacutely, which provides an opportunity for intervention. Recognition of factors that distinguish them from the overall shock cohort would be beneficial. METHODS: The international SHOCK Trial Registry enrolled patients concurrently with the randomized SHOCK Trial. Thirty-six centers consecutively enrolled all patients with suspected CS after MI, regardless of trial eligibility. RESULTS: Of the 1,048 patients studied, 28 (2.7%) had free-wall rupture or tamponade. These patients had less pulmonary edema, less diabetes, less prior MI, and less prior congestive heart failure (all p < 0.05). They more often had new Q waves in two or more leads (51.9% vs. 31.5%, p < 0.04), but MI location and time to shock onset after MI did not differ. Of patients with rupture or tamponade, 75% had pericardial effusions. No hemodynamic characteristics identified patients with rupture/tamponade. Most patients with rupture/tamponade had surgery and/or pericardiocentesis (27/28); their in-hospital survival rate was identical to that of the group overall (39.3%). Women and older patients with rupture/tamponade tended to survive intervention less often. CONCLUSIONS: Free-wall rupture and tamponade may present as CS after MI, and survival after intervention is similar to that of the overall shock cohort. All patients with CS after MI should have echocardiography in order to detect subacute rupture or tamponade and initiate appropriate interventions. (C) 2000 by the American College of Cardiology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine