Brain infarction is a well‐known but poorly understood complication of sickle cell disease. Seventy‐three sickle cell disease patients underwent neurological examinations and high‐field, heavily T2‐weighted axial cranial magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanning. Eighteen of the 73 had a history of stroke, defined as an acute, focal neurological sign lasting longer than 1 hour; in the event of a convulsive onset, an MRI abnormality as a correlate was necessary. Sixteen of the 18 stroke patients demonstrated focal MRI abnormalities consistent with arterial borderzone infarctions. Fifty‐five of the 73 patients had no history of stroke. Six of the 55 (11%) had focal MRI abnormalities suggesting previous subclinical stroke. Five of these lesions were in borderzone regions. The distinguishing feature in 21 of the 22 patients with MRI abnormalities was the predilection for lesions in the high cortical convexity, in the general regions of arterial borderzones between the major cerebral arteries and adjacent deep white matter. The pattern of MRI lesions suggests two pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) proximal large‐vessel disease with inadequate cerebral perfusion (distal field insufficiency syndrome) and (2) distal small‐vessel disease (sludging syndrome).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology