Although the concept that dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens through the engagement of Toll-like receptors is widely accepted, we recently suggested that immature DCs might sense kinin-releasing strains of Trypanosoma cruzi through the triggering of G-protein-coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). Here we report that C57BL/6.B2R-/- mice infected intraperitoneally with T. cruzi display higher parasitemia and mortality rates as compared to B2R+/+ mice. qRT-PCR revealed a 5-fold increase in T. cruzi DNA (14 d post-infection [p.i.]) in B2R-/- heart, while spleen parasitism was negligible in both mice strains. Analysis of recall responses (14 d p.i.) showed high and comparable frequencies of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the spleen of B2R-/- and wild-type mice. However, production of IFN-γ by effector T cells isolated from B2R-/- heart was significantly reduced as compared with wild-type mice. As the infection continued, wild-type mice presented IFN-γ-producing (CD4+CD44+ and CD8 +CD44+) T cells both in the spleen and heart while B 2R-/- mice showed negligible frequencies of such activated T cells. Furthermore, the collapse of type-1 immune responses in B 2R-/- mice was linked to upregulated secretion of IL-17 and TNF-α by antigen-responsive CD4+ T cells. In vitro analysis of tissue culture trypomastigote interaction with splenic CD11c+ DCs indicated that DC maturation (IL-12, CD40, and CD86) is controlled by the kinin/B2R pathway. Further, systemic injection of trypomastigotes induced IL-12 production by CD11c+ DCs isolated from B 2R+/+ spleen, but not by DCs from B2R -/- mice. Notably, adoptive transfer of B2R+/+ CD11c+ DCs (intravenously) into B2R-/- mice rendered them resistant to acute challenge, rescued development of type-1 immunity, and repressed TH17 responses. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of B2R, a DC sensor of endogenous maturation signals, is critically required for development of acquired resistance to T. cruzi infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology