Bone and vitamin D metabolism in HIV

Aristotle Panayiotopoulos, Nandini Bhat, Amrit Bhangoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has progressed to a chronic disease and HIV positive individuals are living longer lives. This has lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality due to secondary issues, one being HIV bone disease. HIV infected pediatric and adult populations have a greater incidence in reduction of BMD as compared to the controls. Osteoporosis has been reported to be present in up to 15 % of HIV positive patients. We are starting to understand the mechanism behind the changes in HIV bone disease. Viral proteins interfere with osteoblastic activity either by direct interaction or by the inflammatory process that they induce. Anti-viral management, including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), protease inhibitors, and nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) also are involved in disrupting proper bone metabolism. Vitamin D levels have strong correlation with bone disease in HIV patients, and are dependent not only to chronic disease state, but interaction of pharmacologic management and inflammatory process as well. Work up of the secondary causes of osteopenia and osteoporosis should be undertaken in all patients. DEXA scan is recommended in all post-menopausal women with HIV, all HIV infected men 50 years of age or older and in those with a history of fragility fractures regardless of age or gender. Preventive measures include adequate nutrition, calcium and Vitamin D intake daily, muscle strengthening and balance exercises to increase BMD and reduce fractures. Bisphosphonates are considered to be the first line for the treatment of HIV associated bone disease. This review will describe how the balanced mechanism of bone metabolism is interrupted by the HIV infection itself, the complications that arise from HIV/AIDS, and its treatment options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-125
Number of pages7
JournalReviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Vitamin D
HIV
Bone and Bones
Bone Diseases
Virus Diseases
Osteoporosis
Chronic Disease
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Metabolic Bone Diseases
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Photon Absorptiometry
Diphosphonates
Viral Proteins
Protease Inhibitors
Nucleosides
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Nucleotides
Exercise
Pediatrics
Calcium

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Cytokines
  • Glucocorticoids
  • HIV
  • Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Bone and vitamin D metabolism in HIV. / Panayiotopoulos, Aristotle; Bhat, Nandini; Bhangoo, Amrit.

In: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 14, No. 2, 06.2013, p. 119-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Panayiotopoulos, A, Bhat, N & Bhangoo, A 2013, 'Bone and vitamin D metabolism in HIV', Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 119-125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-013-9246-8
Panayiotopoulos, Aristotle ; Bhat, Nandini ; Bhangoo, Amrit. / Bone and vitamin D metabolism in HIV. In: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 2013 ; Vol. 14, No. 2. pp. 119-125.
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