In this review, we summarize the group discussions on Cell Biology & Mechanics from the 2014 ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. The major discussion topics included: (1) the biology of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and the potential of stem cell-based tendon therapy using TSPCs and other types of stem cells, namely, embryonic and/or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), (2) the biological concept and potential impact of cellular senescence on tendon aging, tendon injury repair and the development of degenerative disease, and (3) the effects of tendon cells' mechano-response on tendon cell fate and metabolism. For each topic, a brief overview is presented which summarizes the major points discussed by the group participants. The focus of the discussions ranged from current research progress, challenges and opportunities, to future directions on these topics. In the preparation of this manuscript, authors consulted relevant references as a part of their efforts to present an accurate view on the topics discussed.