Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats

Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Malgorzata Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Alicja Polubinska, Justyna Wisniewska, Dirk Faict, Cliff J. Holmes, Andrzej Breborowicz

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the in vivo peritoneal inflammatory reaction in rats dialyzed with neutral, bicarbonate-lactate-buffered dialysis fluid. Methods: Chronic peritoneal dialysis was performed for 4 weeks in Wistar rats with two solutions: (1) 40 mmol/L lactate-buffered fluid, pH 5.2, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dl (Lac); and, (2) 15 mmol/L lactate and 25 mmol/L bicarbonate-buffered fluid, pH 7.0-7.5, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dL (Bic-Lac). After 4 weeks, two peritoneal equilibration tests (PET 1 and PET 2) were performed in all animals with each respective solution. PET 1 was done with test solutions alone, whereas, on a subsequent day, PET 2 was performed with test solutions supplemented with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] to induce peritonitis. Results: During PET 1 no consistent differences were detected in peritoneal permeability between the Lac and Bic-Lac groups. Total dialysate cell count in the Bic-Lac animals was lower than in rats treated with Lac fluid: that is, at 8 hours, the respective counts were 1858 ± 524 cells/μL versus 2785 ± 1162 cells/μL (p < 0.01). Dialysate from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac contained more macrophages (at 4 hours: 53.6% ± 35.8% versus 35.8% ± 8.8%, p < 0.001) and fewer neutrophils (at 4 hours: 3.6% ± 1.8% versus 15.4% ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) as compared to those dialyzed with the Lac solution. Concentration of nitrites in 8-hour dwell dialysate samples from Bic-Lac rats was lower than that in the Lac group (0.98 ± 0.28 μmol/ml versus 2.32 ± 0.87 μmol/mL, p < 0.002), but cytokine levels in the dialysates were comparable. During PET 2, the increase in peritoneal permeability resulting from the LPS-induced inflammatory response was similar for both test solutions. Dialysate cell count was higher in the Lac group versus the Bic-Lac group (at 8 hours: 8789 ± 4862 cells/μL versus 3961 ± 581 cells/μL, p < 0.001), contained more neutrophils (at 8 hours: 80.0% ± 11.3% versus 54.8% ± 4.4%, p < 0.001) and fewer macrophages (at 8 hours: 6.8% ± 5.6% versus 21.2% ± 3.3%, p < 0.05). During peritonitis, we found a higher overall dialysate concentration of both tumor necrosis factor (TNFα: +53%, p < 0.05) and of interferon gamma (IFN-γ: +303%, p < 0.02), in the Bic-Lac group than in the Lac group. Conclusions: A lower dialysate cell count, higher percentage of macrophages, and lower percentage of neutrophils in dialysate suggest that Bic-Lac fluid induces a diminished nonspecific inflammatory response of the peritoneal cavity during dialysis. However, after in vivo stimulation, peritoneal cells from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac solution possess an augmented ability to produce inflammatory cytokines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPeritoneal Dialysis International
Volume19
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

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Dialysis Solutions
Bicarbonates
Lactic Acid
Neutrophils
Cell Count
Macrophages
Peritonitis
Lipopolysaccharides
Dialysis
Permeability
Cytokines
Glucose
Peritoneal Cavity
Peritoneal Dialysis
Nitrites
Endotoxins
Interferon-gamma
Wistar Rats
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Bicarbonate
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Peritoneal permeability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Pawlaczyk, K., Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, M., Wieczorowska-Tobis, K., Polubinska, A., Wisniewska, J., Faict, D., ... Breborowicz, A. (1999). Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 19(SUPPL. 2).

Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats. / Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, Malgorzata; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna; Polubinska, Alicja; Wisniewska, Justyna; Faict, Dirk; Holmes, Cliff J.; Breborowicz, Andrzej.

In: Peritoneal Dialysis International, Vol. 19, No. SUPPL. 2, 1999.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pawlaczyk, K, Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, M, Wieczorowska-Tobis, K, Polubinska, A, Wisniewska, J, Faict, D, Holmes, CJ & Breborowicz, A 1999, 'Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats', Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 19, no. SUPPL. 2.
Pawlaczyk K, Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk M, Wieczorowska-Tobis K, Polubinska A, Wisniewska J, Faict D et al. Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats. Peritoneal Dialysis International. 1999;19(SUPPL. 2).
Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof ; Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, Malgorzata ; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna ; Polubinska, Alicja ; Wisniewska, Justyna ; Faict, Dirk ; Holmes, Cliff J. ; Breborowicz, Andrzej. / Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats. In: Peritoneal Dialysis International. 1999 ; Vol. 19, No. SUPPL. 2.
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abstract = "Objective: To assess the in vivo peritoneal inflammatory reaction in rats dialyzed with neutral, bicarbonate-lactate-buffered dialysis fluid. Methods: Chronic peritoneal dialysis was performed for 4 weeks in Wistar rats with two solutions: (1) 40 mmol/L lactate-buffered fluid, pH 5.2, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dl (Lac); and, (2) 15 mmol/L lactate and 25 mmol/L bicarbonate-buffered fluid, pH 7.0-7.5, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dL (Bic-Lac). After 4 weeks, two peritoneal equilibration tests (PET 1 and PET 2) were performed in all animals with each respective solution. PET 1 was done with test solutions alone, whereas, on a subsequent day, PET 2 was performed with test solutions supplemented with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] to induce peritonitis. Results: During PET 1 no consistent differences were detected in peritoneal permeability between the Lac and Bic-Lac groups. Total dialysate cell count in the Bic-Lac animals was lower than in rats treated with Lac fluid: that is, at 8 hours, the respective counts were 1858 ± 524 cells/μL versus 2785 ± 1162 cells/μL (p < 0.01). Dialysate from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac contained more macrophages (at 4 hours: 53.6{\%} ± 35.8{\%} versus 35.8{\%} ± 8.8{\%}, p < 0.001) and fewer neutrophils (at 4 hours: 3.6{\%} ± 1.8{\%} versus 15.4{\%} ± 6.1{\%}, p < 0.001) as compared to those dialyzed with the Lac solution. Concentration of nitrites in 8-hour dwell dialysate samples from Bic-Lac rats was lower than that in the Lac group (0.98 ± 0.28 μmol/ml versus 2.32 ± 0.87 μmol/mL, p < 0.002), but cytokine levels in the dialysates were comparable. During PET 2, the increase in peritoneal permeability resulting from the LPS-induced inflammatory response was similar for both test solutions. Dialysate cell count was higher in the Lac group versus the Bic-Lac group (at 8 hours: 8789 ± 4862 cells/μL versus 3961 ± 581 cells/μL, p < 0.001), contained more neutrophils (at 8 hours: 80.0{\%} ± 11.3{\%} versus 54.8{\%} ± 4.4{\%}, p < 0.001) and fewer macrophages (at 8 hours: 6.8{\%} ± 5.6{\%} versus 21.2{\%} ± 3.3{\%}, p < 0.05). During peritonitis, we found a higher overall dialysate concentration of both tumor necrosis factor (TNFα: +53{\%}, p < 0.05) and of interferon gamma (IFN-γ: +303{\%}, p < 0.02), in the Bic-Lac group than in the Lac group. Conclusions: A lower dialysate cell count, higher percentage of macrophages, and lower percentage of neutrophils in dialysate suggest that Bic-Lac fluid induces a diminished nonspecific inflammatory response of the peritoneal cavity during dialysis. However, after in vivo stimulation, peritoneal cells from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac solution possess an augmented ability to produce inflammatory cytokines.",
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T1 - Bicarbonate/lactate dialysis solution improves in vivo function of peritoneal host defense in rats

AU - Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof

AU - Kuzlan-Pawlaczyk, Malgorzata

AU - Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

AU - Polubinska, Alicja

AU - Wisniewska, Justyna

AU - Faict, Dirk

AU - Holmes, Cliff J.

AU - Breborowicz, Andrzej

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Objective: To assess the in vivo peritoneal inflammatory reaction in rats dialyzed with neutral, bicarbonate-lactate-buffered dialysis fluid. Methods: Chronic peritoneal dialysis was performed for 4 weeks in Wistar rats with two solutions: (1) 40 mmol/L lactate-buffered fluid, pH 5.2, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dl (Lac); and, (2) 15 mmol/L lactate and 25 mmol/L bicarbonate-buffered fluid, pH 7.0-7.5, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dL (Bic-Lac). After 4 weeks, two peritoneal equilibration tests (PET 1 and PET 2) were performed in all animals with each respective solution. PET 1 was done with test solutions alone, whereas, on a subsequent day, PET 2 was performed with test solutions supplemented with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] to induce peritonitis. Results: During PET 1 no consistent differences were detected in peritoneal permeability between the Lac and Bic-Lac groups. Total dialysate cell count in the Bic-Lac animals was lower than in rats treated with Lac fluid: that is, at 8 hours, the respective counts were 1858 ± 524 cells/μL versus 2785 ± 1162 cells/μL (p < 0.01). Dialysate from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac contained more macrophages (at 4 hours: 53.6% ± 35.8% versus 35.8% ± 8.8%, p < 0.001) and fewer neutrophils (at 4 hours: 3.6% ± 1.8% versus 15.4% ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) as compared to those dialyzed with the Lac solution. Concentration of nitrites in 8-hour dwell dialysate samples from Bic-Lac rats was lower than that in the Lac group (0.98 ± 0.28 μmol/ml versus 2.32 ± 0.87 μmol/mL, p < 0.002), but cytokine levels in the dialysates were comparable. During PET 2, the increase in peritoneal permeability resulting from the LPS-induced inflammatory response was similar for both test solutions. Dialysate cell count was higher in the Lac group versus the Bic-Lac group (at 8 hours: 8789 ± 4862 cells/μL versus 3961 ± 581 cells/μL, p < 0.001), contained more neutrophils (at 8 hours: 80.0% ± 11.3% versus 54.8% ± 4.4%, p < 0.001) and fewer macrophages (at 8 hours: 6.8% ± 5.6% versus 21.2% ± 3.3%, p < 0.05). During peritonitis, we found a higher overall dialysate concentration of both tumor necrosis factor (TNFα: +53%, p < 0.05) and of interferon gamma (IFN-γ: +303%, p < 0.02), in the Bic-Lac group than in the Lac group. Conclusions: A lower dialysate cell count, higher percentage of macrophages, and lower percentage of neutrophils in dialysate suggest that Bic-Lac fluid induces a diminished nonspecific inflammatory response of the peritoneal cavity during dialysis. However, after in vivo stimulation, peritoneal cells from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac solution possess an augmented ability to produce inflammatory cytokines.

AB - Objective: To assess the in vivo peritoneal inflammatory reaction in rats dialyzed with neutral, bicarbonate-lactate-buffered dialysis fluid. Methods: Chronic peritoneal dialysis was performed for 4 weeks in Wistar rats with two solutions: (1) 40 mmol/L lactate-buffered fluid, pH 5.2, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dl (Lac); and, (2) 15 mmol/L lactate and 25 mmol/L bicarbonate-buffered fluid, pH 7.0-7.5, with a glucose concentration of 2.27 g/dL (Bic-Lac). After 4 weeks, two peritoneal equilibration tests (PET 1 and PET 2) were performed in all animals with each respective solution. PET 1 was done with test solutions alone, whereas, on a subsequent day, PET 2 was performed with test solutions supplemented with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] to induce peritonitis. Results: During PET 1 no consistent differences were detected in peritoneal permeability between the Lac and Bic-Lac groups. Total dialysate cell count in the Bic-Lac animals was lower than in rats treated with Lac fluid: that is, at 8 hours, the respective counts were 1858 ± 524 cells/μL versus 2785 ± 1162 cells/μL (p < 0.01). Dialysate from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac contained more macrophages (at 4 hours: 53.6% ± 35.8% versus 35.8% ± 8.8%, p < 0.001) and fewer neutrophils (at 4 hours: 3.6% ± 1.8% versus 15.4% ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) as compared to those dialyzed with the Lac solution. Concentration of nitrites in 8-hour dwell dialysate samples from Bic-Lac rats was lower than that in the Lac group (0.98 ± 0.28 μmol/ml versus 2.32 ± 0.87 μmol/mL, p < 0.002), but cytokine levels in the dialysates were comparable. During PET 2, the increase in peritoneal permeability resulting from the LPS-induced inflammatory response was similar for both test solutions. Dialysate cell count was higher in the Lac group versus the Bic-Lac group (at 8 hours: 8789 ± 4862 cells/μL versus 3961 ± 581 cells/μL, p < 0.001), contained more neutrophils (at 8 hours: 80.0% ± 11.3% versus 54.8% ± 4.4%, p < 0.001) and fewer macrophages (at 8 hours: 6.8% ± 5.6% versus 21.2% ± 3.3%, p < 0.05). During peritonitis, we found a higher overall dialysate concentration of both tumor necrosis factor (TNFα: +53%, p < 0.05) and of interferon gamma (IFN-γ: +303%, p < 0.02), in the Bic-Lac group than in the Lac group. Conclusions: A lower dialysate cell count, higher percentage of macrophages, and lower percentage of neutrophils in dialysate suggest that Bic-Lac fluid induces a diminished nonspecific inflammatory response of the peritoneal cavity during dialysis. However, after in vivo stimulation, peritoneal cells from animals dialyzed with Bic-Lac solution possess an augmented ability to produce inflammatory cytokines.

KW - Bicarbonate

KW - Cytokines

KW - Inflammation

KW - Peritoneal permeability

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