Associations of sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in a prospective cohort study: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, 2008–2017

Samuel L. Swift, Yelena R. Drexler, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Leopoldo Raij, Maria M. Llabre, Neil Schneiderman, Linda Van Horn, James P. Lash, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Tali Elfassy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: According to dietary recommendations, reduction of sodium intake has potential to reduce Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) risk; however the role of dietary potassium and the sodium -to- potassium ratio in the development of CKD is unclear. Methods: We studied 9778 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) from four US urban communities. Participants were aged 18–74 yrs., free from CKD at baseline in 2008–2011 and re-examined between 2014 and − 2017. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium and the ratio of dietary sodium -to- potassium were measured from two baseline 24-h dietary recalls. Incident CKD was defined as: 1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of 1 unit per year and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 or 2) albumin to creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at the follow-up visit. We used multivariable survey weighted Poisson regression to estimate adjusted incident rates of incident CKD. Results: At baseline, mean age was 41 years. Average follow up time was 6.2 years. From fully adjusted Poisson regression analyses, self-reported sodium intake was not associated with incident CKD. However, for each 500 mg decrement in potassium intake, there was an 11% increase risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.24). Additionally, every 1 M ratio increment of sodium -to -potassium ratio was associated with a 21% increased risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.45), p < 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that diets low in potassium and high in sodium are associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease among healthy US Hispanic/Latino adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number133
JournalBMC Nephrology
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Cohort study
  • Epidemiology
  • Potassium
  • Sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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