Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths

Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth)

Christina M. Parrinello, Bryan J. Rudolph, Mariana Lazo, Linda C. Gallo, Bharat Thyagarajan, Scott J. Cotler, Qibin Qi, Tossaporn Seeherunvong, Denise C. Vidot, Howard Strickler, Robert C. Kaplan, Carmen R. Isasi

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). RESULTS: HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e46-e53
JournalJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

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Hispanic Americans
Insulin Resistance
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Liver
Enzymes
gamma-Glutamyltransferase
Pediatrics
Homeostasis
Fibrosis
Alanine Transaminase
Inflammation
Selectins
Population Growth
Adiponectin
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Waist Circumference
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Child Health
Hyperglycemia
Liver Cirrhosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths : Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth). / Parrinello, Christina M.; Rudolph, Bryan J.; Lazo, Mariana; Gallo, Linda C.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Cotler, Scott J.; Qi, Qibin; Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Vidot, Denise C.; Strickler, Howard; Kaplan, Robert C.; Isasi, Carmen R.

In: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 53, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. e46-e53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths: Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth)",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). RESULTS: HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95{\%} confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.",
author = "Parrinello, {Christina M.} and Rudolph, {Bryan J.} and Mariana Lazo and Gallo, {Linda C.} and Bharat Thyagarajan and Cotler, {Scott J.} and Qibin Qi and Tossaporn Seeherunvong and Vidot, {Denise C.} and Howard Strickler and Kaplan, {Robert C.} and Isasi, {Carmen R.}",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths

T2 - Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth)

AU - Parrinello, Christina M.

AU - Rudolph, Bryan J.

AU - Lazo, Mariana

AU - Gallo, Linda C.

AU - Thyagarajan, Bharat

AU - Cotler, Scott J.

AU - Qi, Qibin

AU - Seeherunvong, Tossaporn

AU - Vidot, Denise C.

AU - Strickler, Howard

AU - Kaplan, Robert C.

AU - Isasi, Carmen R.

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). RESULTS: HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

AB - BACKGROUND: Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). RESULTS: HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

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