Associations between macronutrient intake and self-reported appetite and fasting levels of appetite hormones: Results from the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease

Jeannette M. Beasley, Brett A. Ange, Cheryl A M Anderson, Edgar R. Miller, Thomas P. Erlinger, Janet T. Holbrook, Frank M. Sacks, Lawrence J. Appel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The authors compared effects of macronutrients on self-reported appetite and selected fasting hormone levels. The Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease (OMNI-Heart) (2003-2005) was a randomized, 3-period, crossover feeding trial (n=164) comparing the effects of 3 diets, each rich in a different macronutrient. Percentages of kilocalories of carbohydrate, fat, and protein were 48, 27, and 25, respectively, for the protein-rich diet; 58, 27, and 15, for the carbohydrate-rich diet; and 48, 37, and 15 for the diet rich in unsaturated fat. Food and drink were provided for each isocaloric 6-week period. Appetite was measured by visual analog scales. Pairwise differences between diets were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Compared with the protein diet, premeal appetite was 14% higher on the carbohydrate (P=0.01) and unsaturated-fat (P=0.003) diets. Geometric mean leptin was 8% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate diet (P=0.003). Obestatin levels were 7% and 6% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate (P=0.02) and unsaturated-fat (P=0.004) diets, respectively. There were no between-diet differences for ghrelin. A diet rich in protein from lean meat and vegetables reduces self-reported appetite compared with diets rich in carbohydrate and unsaturated fat and can be recommended in a weight-stable setting. The observed pattern of hormone changes does not explain the inverse association between protein intake and appetite.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)893-900
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume169
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Appetite
Heart Diseases
Fasting
Hormones
Diet
Unsaturated Fats
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Ghrelin
Leptin
Visual Analog Scale
Vegetables
Cross-Over Studies
Meat
Fats

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Cross-over studies
  • Diet
  • Dietary carbohydrates
  • Dietary fats
  • Dietary proteins
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Associations between macronutrient intake and self-reported appetite and fasting levels of appetite hormones : Results from the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease. / Beasley, Jeannette M.; Ange, Brett A.; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Miller, Edgar R.; Erlinger, Thomas P.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Sacks, Frank M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

In: American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 169, No. 7, 04.2009, p. 893-900.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Beasley, Jeannette M. ; Ange, Brett A. ; Anderson, Cheryl A M ; Miller, Edgar R. ; Erlinger, Thomas P. ; Holbrook, Janet T. ; Sacks, Frank M. ; Appel, Lawrence J. / Associations between macronutrient intake and self-reported appetite and fasting levels of appetite hormones : Results from the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease. In: American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009 ; Vol. 169, No. 7. pp. 893-900.
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