Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

David G. Dillon, Deepti Gurdasani, Johanna Riha, Kenneth Ekoru, Gershim Asiki, Billy N. Mayanja, Naomi S. Levitt, Nigel J. Crowther, Moffat Nyirenda, Marina Njelekela, Kaushik Ramaiya, Ousman Nyan, Olanisun O. Adewole, Kathryn Anastos, Livio Azzoni, W. Henry Boom, Caterina Compostella, Joel A. Dave, Halima Dawood, Christian ErikstrupCarla M. Fourie, Henrik Friis, Annamarie Kruger, John A. Idoko, Chris T. Longenecker, Suzanne Mbondi, Japheth E. Mukaya, Eugene Mutimura, Chiratidzo E. Ndhlovu, George Praygod, Eric W. Pefura Yone, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Nyagosya Range, Mahmoud U. Sani, Aletta E. Schutte, Karen Sliwa, Phyllis C. Tien, Este H. Vorster, Corinna Walsh, Rutendo Zinyama, Fredirick Mashili, Eugene Sobngwi, Clement Adebamowo, Anatoli Kamali, Janet Seeley, Elizabeth H. Young, Liam Smeeth, Ayesha A. Motala, Pontiano Kaleebu, Manjinder S. Sandhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

139 Scopus citations


Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations.Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis through MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to January 2012), as well as direct author contact. Eligible studies provided summary or individual-level data on one or more of the following traits in HIV+ and HIV-, or ART+ and ART- subgroups in SSA: body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TGs) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Information was synthesized under a random-effects model and the primary outcomes were the standardized mean differences (SMD) of the specified traits between subgroups of participants.Results: Data were obtained from 49 published and 3 unpublished studies which reported on 29 755 individuals. HIV infection was associated with higher TGs [SMD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08 to 0.44] and lower HDL (SMD, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.31), BMI (SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.18), SBP (SMD, -0.40; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.25) and DBP (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17). Among HIV+ individuals, ART use was associated with higher LDL (SMD, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.72) and HDL (SMD, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.66), and lower HbA1c (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.06). Fully adjusted estimates from analyses of individual participant data were consistent with meta-analysis of summary estimates for most traits.Conclusions: Broadly consistent with results from populations of European descent, these results suggest differences in cardiometabolic traits between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals in SSA, which might be modified by ART use. In a region with the highest burden of HIV, it will be important to clarify these findings to reliably assess the need for monitoring and managing cardiometabolic risk in HIV-infected populations in SSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1754-1771
Number of pages18
JournalInternational journal of epidemiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • ART
  • Cardiometabolic disease
  • HIV
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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