Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: A report from the women's interagency HIV study

Joseph G. Feldman, Howard Minkoff, Michael F. Schneider, Stephen J. Gange, Mardge Cohen, D. Heather Watts, Monica Gandhi, Robert S. Mocharnuk, Kathryn Anastos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective. We assessed the association of cigarette smoking with the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among low-income women. Methods. Data were analyzed from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite longitudinal study up to 7.9 years for 924 women representing 72% of all women who initiated HAART between July 1, 1995, and September 30, 2003. Results. When Cox's regression was used after control for age, race, hepatitis C infection, illicit drug use, previous antiretroviral therapy, and previous AIDS, smokers on HAART had poorer viral responses (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67, 0.93) and poorer immunologic response (HR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.73, 0.99). A greater risk of virologic rebound (HR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.69) and more frequent immunologic failure (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.18, 1.96) were also observed among smokers. There was a higher risk of death (HR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.19) and a higher risk of developing AIDS (HR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) but no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in the risk of death due to AIDS. Conclusions. Some of the benefits provided by HAART are negated in cigarette smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1060-1065
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Volume96
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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