Assessing the pharmacodynamic profile of intravenous antibiotics against prevalent Gram-negative organisms collected in Colombia

Maria Virginia Villegas, David Felipe Briceno, Sory Jamil Ruiz, Guilherme H. Furtado, David P. Nicolau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: This study was designed to simulate standard and optimized dosing regimens for intravenous antibiotics against contemporary populations of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using MIC distribution data to determine which of the tested carbapenem regimens provided the greatest opportunity for obtaining maximal pharmacodynamic (PD) activity. Methods: The isolates studied were obtained from the COMPACT-COLOMBIA surveillance program conducted between February and November 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Doripenem, imipenem-cilastatin, and meropenem, were the modeled antibiotics. A 5,000 patient Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each regimen and PD targets were defined as free drug concentrations above the MIC for at least 40% of the dosing interval. Results: All carbapenem regimens obtained optimal exposures against E. coli, unlike the other Enterobacteriaceae tested. Against P. aeruginosa, only a prolonged infusion of doripenem exceeded the 90% cumulative fraction of response (CFR) threshold. Worrisomely, no regimens for any of the drugs tested obtained optimal CFR against A. baumannii. For P. aeruginosa intensive care unit (ICU) isolates, CFR was approximately 20% lower for isolates collected in the respiratory tract compared with bloodstream or intra-abdominal for imipenem and meropenem. Noteworthy, all doripenem and meropenem regimens achieved greater than 90% CFR against bloodstream and respiratory isolates of K. pneumoniae. Conclusions: Our data suggests that higher dosing and prolonged infusion of doripenem or meropenem may be suitable for empirically treating ICU P. aeruginosa, while none of the carbapenems achieved optimal cumulative fraction of response against A. baumannii. Standard dosing regimens of all the carbapenems tested achieved optimal CFR against E. coli isolates, but higher carbapenem dosages might be required for empiric treatment of K. pneumoniae, particularly from an intra-abdominal source. Non-standard dosage regimens studied in this modeling should be proven effective in prospective clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-419
Number of pages7
JournalBrazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Colombia
  • Drug resistance, bacterial
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Pharmacology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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