Applications of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) in gynecologic surgery

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of reviewNatural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging approach used across surgical disciplines. This review seeks to assess the growing body of literature on experiences and outcomes using vaginal NOTES (vNOTES) in gynecologic surgery.Recent findingsMany limitations of vaginal surgery including lack of descensus or restricted vaginal space can be overcome with vNOTES whereas avoiding risks of abdominal incisions in traditional laparoscopy. vNOTES may have superior outcomes in pain, length of stay, and satisfaction for multiple gynecologic indications however additional data is needed to assess cost-effectiveness and long-term outcomes. Surgeons implementing this technique should have adequate experience with both traditional vaginal and laparoscopic approaches. The current body of high-quality studies is heavily influenced by single site, single surgeon studies and as such may not be fully applicable to all practices incorporating this novel technique, and adequate training should precede implementation of Vnotes.SummaryVaginal surgery is considered the least invasive approach, however, may not be appropriate in all cases. vNOTES presents a novel approach that combines the access and visualization afforded by endoscopy whereas avoiding the risks associated with transabdominal entry and can be considered as a feasible option in gynecologic surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-226
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022


  • natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
  • natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
  • vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
  • vaginal surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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