Guidelines for diagnosis and grading of diastolic dysfunction (DD) in children have not been established. The applicability of adult parameters of DD to children has been questioned by recent studies. Although normal diastolic parameters in children have been published, the data to support application of these indices for the non-invasive diagnosis of DD and quantifying its degree are still being developed. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is the only recognized disease entity in children that presents with isolated, irreversible DD as the predominant finding. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of current diastolic indices used for assessment of diastolic function in adults as reliable indicators of DD in children with established RCM. Retrospective review of institutional clinical database for the period of 2002–2010 was performed to identify patients with RCM who had had a comprehensive echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function. The following parameters were obtained from apical four chamber view: mitral valve (MV) inflow Doppler early filling velocity (E), late filling velocity (A), deceleration time (DT), color M-mode flow propagation from MV to apex (Vp), Doppler tissue imaging derived early diastolic velocity E′ and late diastolic velocity A′ at the LV lateral wall at MV annulus, RV at the tricuspid valve annulus, septum, and LA area. All parameters were compared to age and gender matched controls using student t test. : LA area/BSA was significantly larger in RCM group than the control group, median 22.8 cm2/m2 (range 16.9–28.6) versus 10.3 cm2/m2 (range 8.3–12.3), p value <0.001. MV inflow E and A were lower, and DT was shorter in the RCM group (p = 0.04, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively). A wave was absent in 3 of 9 patients in the RCM group. Ratio of E to A (E/A) was not different between the two groups. E′ was significantly lower at all three sites in RCM group; however, there was some overlap between the two groups. E/septal E′ ratio was statistically significantly higher in RCM group. A′ was absent either at lateral wall or at septum in five patients. 7 of 9 patients in RCM group had L′ wave (at lateral wall or septum) defined as negative deflection during diastasis. Vp was higher in RCM group than in the control group 81.4 ± 44.5 versus 52.9 ± 10.9, p value <0.01. Combination of increased left atrial size, septal E/E′, and lack of A wave and presence of mid-diastolic L′-wave are the noted abnormalities in this group. Individual cut-offs for Doppler indices have very poor sensitivity in identifying restrictive physiology. These findings suggest that poor LV compliance is the hallmark of restrictive cardiomyopathy in children even in the presence of normal early relaxation and ventricular filling. These findings support the need for development of guidelines for diagnosis and physiologic grading of diastolic dysfunction in children.
- Diastolic dysfunction
- Restrictive cardiomyopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine