Background: Individuals of African ancestry harboring two variant alleles within apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) are classified with a high-risk (HR) genotype. Adults with an HR genotype have increased risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease compared with those with a low-risk (LR) genotype (0 or 1 variants). The role of APOL1 risk genotypes in children with glomerular disease is less well known. Methods: This study characterized 104 African-American children with a glomerular disease by APOL1 genotype in two cohorts: The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) and Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE). Results: Among these subjects, 46% had an HR genotype with a similar age at cohort enrollment. For APOL1 HR children, the median age of disease onset was older (CKiD: 4.5 versus 11.5 years for LR versus HR; NEPTUNE: 11 versus 14 years for LR versus HR, respectively) and preterm birth was more common [CKiD: 27 versus 4%; NEPTUNE: 26 versus 12%; combined odds ratio 4.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 15.5)].Within studies, HR children had lower initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) (CKiD: 53 versus 69 mL/min/1.73 m2; NEPTUNE: 74 versus 94 mL/min/1.73 m2). Longitudinal EGFR decline was faster among HR children versus LR (CKiD: -18 versus -8% per year; NEPTUNE: -13 versus-3% per year). Conclusions: Children with an HR genotype in CKiD and NEPTUNE seem to have a more aggressive form of glomerular disease, in part due to a higher prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. These consistent findings across independent cohorts suggest a common natural history for children with APOL1-Associated glomerular disease. Further study is needed to determine the generalizability of these findings.
- Nephrotic syndrome
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