Antibodies elicited in response to a single cycle glycoprotein d deletion viral vaccine candidate bind c1q and activate complement mediated neutralization and cytolysis

Maria Luisa Visciano, Aakash Mahant Mahant, Carl Pierce, Richard Hunte, Betsy C. Herold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) prevention is a global health priority but, despite decades of research, there is no effective vaccine. Prior efforts focused on generating glycoprotein D (gD) neutralizing antibodies, but clinical trial outcomes were disappointing. The deletion of gD yields a single-cycle candidate vaccine (∆gD-2) that elicits high titer polyantigenic non-gD antibodies that exhibit little complement-independent neutralization but mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP). Active or passive immunization with ∆gD-2 completely protects mice from lethal disease and latency following challenge with clinical isolates of either serotype. The current studies evaluated the role of complement in vaccine-elicited protection. The immune serum from the ∆gD-2 vaccinated mice exhibited significantly greater C1q binding compared to the serum from the gD protein vaccinated mice with infected cell lysates from either serotype as capture antigens. The C1q-binding antibodies recognized glycoprotein B. This resulted in significantly greater antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytolysis and neutralization. Notably, complete protection was preserved when the ∆gD-2 immune serum was passively transferred into C1q knockout mice, suggesting that ADCC and ADCP are sufficient in mice. We speculate that the polyfunctional responses elicited by ∆gD-2 may prove more effective in preventing HSV, compared to the more restrictive responses elicited by adjuvanted gD protein vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1284
JournalViruses
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Keywords

  • C1q
  • Complement
  • Complement-dependent cytolysis
  • Complement-dependent neutralization
  • Glycoprotein B
  • Glycoprotein D
  • Herpes simplex viruses
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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