Anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone and its protective effects against several diseases

Zeynab Kohandel, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Michael Aschner, Saeed Samarghandian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Thymoquinone (TQ, 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone), a monoterpene molecule present in Nigella sativa L., has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties in several disorders such as asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness and influenza. TQ exerts its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects via several molecular pathways, including the release of cytokines, and activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-Κβ). In this review, recent reports on the anti-inflammatory efficacy of TQ in heart disorders, respiratory diseases, neuroinflammation, diabetes and arthritis are summarized. We suggest that further investigation is necessary to better characterize the efficacy of TQ as a therapeutic agent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111492
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Inflammation
  • Signaling pathways
  • Thymoquinone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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