Astaxanthin (AST) is a red pigmented carotenoid with significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we summarize the available literature on the anti-inflammatory efficacy of AST in various chronic and acute disorders, such as neurodegenerative, renal-, hepato-, skin- and eye-related diseases, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, we elaborated on therapeutic efficacy of AST and the role of several pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Nrf2, NF-κB, ERK1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, and JAK-2/STAT-3 in mediating its effects. However, additional experimental and clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the anti-inflammatory effects and protective effects of AST against inflammatory diseases in humans. Nevertheless, this review suggests that AST with its demonstrated anti-inflammatory property may be a suitable candidate for drug design with novel technology.
- Oxidative stress
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