Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status. In view of the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the exotic Brazilian fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), its methanolic extract was obtained by solid-phase extraction (SPE). This açaíextract showed considerable anthocyanins content and direct antioxidant capacity. The açaíextract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) with an EC50 of 19.1 ppm, showing higher antioxidant activity compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than ascorbic acid and quercetin. This obtained açaí extract also attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress in primary cultured astrocytes. Specifically, the açaí extract at an optimal and nutritionally relevant concentration of 0.1 μg/ml prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress by (1) restoring GSH/GSSG ratio and net glutamate uptake, (2) protecting astrocytic membranes from lipid peroxidation, and (3) decreasing Mn-induced expression of erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) protein. A larger quantity of açaí extract exacerbated the effects of Mn on these parameters except with respect to lipid peroxidation assessed by means of F2-isoprostanes. These studies indicate that at nutritionally relevant concentration, anthocyanins obtained from açaí protect astrocytes against Mn neurotoxicity, but at high concentrations, the "pro- oxidant"effects of its constituents likely prevail. Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 3 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis