Annual indirect cost savings in patients with episodic or chronic migraine: post-hoc analyses from multiple galcanezumab clinical trials

Joshua Tobin, Janet H. Ford, Antje Tockhorn-Heidenreich, Russell M. Nichols, Wenyu Ye, Rohit Bhandari, Xiaojuan Mi, Karan Sharma, Richard B. Lipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aim: This post-hoc analysis estimated annual indirect cost savings with galcanezumab (GMB) treatment in patients with episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM). Methods: Data from 4 randomized, Phase 3, double-blind (DB), placebo (PBO)-controlled studies of GMB were analyzed: EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2 (EM, 6-months DB), REGAIN (CM, 3-months DB), and CONQUER (previous failure of 2–4 migraine preventive medication categories, 3-months DB). Indirect costs were calculated at baseline and Month 3 using the first 2 items in Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS): (A + B)/60*country specific annual wage (A = days of missed work/school; B = days of reduced productivity at work/school; assuming 60 working days in 3 months). All costs were annualized and expressed in international dollars (Int$) in 2018. ANCOVA models estimated the indirect cost savings as a change from baseline. Secondary analyses determined cost savings by employment and responder status. Results: Patients (>80% females) from EVOLVE-1 and −2 (n = 1,201; mean age 41.9 years), REGAIN (n = 759; mean age 41.3 years), and CONQUER (n = 453; mean age ∼46.0 years) were analyzed. GMB showed significant indirect cost savings for EM (Int$6256, p <.0001) and CM (Int$7129, p =.0002), with substantial savings for patients with previous failure of 2–4 migraine preventive medication categories (EM: Int$5664, p =.0030; CM: Int$5181, p =.1300). Compared with PBO, GMB showed significantly greater indirect cost savings for EM (p =.0156) and patients with previous failure of 2–4 migraine preventive medication categories (p =.0340). Employed patients with CM (p =.0018) and with previous failure of 2–4 migraine preventive medication categories (p <.0001) had significant cost savings after GMB treatment. GMB showed significant indirect cost savings in patients with a reduction in migraine headache days. Conclusion: GMB treatment resulted in annual indirect cost savings in patients with EM, CM, and with previous failure of 2–4 migraine preventive medication categories, with similar observations in the sensitivity analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)630-639
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Economics
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Chronic migraine
  • employment
  • episodic migraine
  • indirect cost
  • migraine headache days
  • post-hoc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy

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