Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the disease burden worldwide and high mortality especially for those that epilepsy does not remit. With the current explosion in neurosciences, epilepsy research is likely to reach these goals. In vitro and in vivo animal models are essential. In this chapter we describe the currently available models that encompass a large number and variety of approaches applied to phylogenetically different animals from the worms to the monkeys with a special emphasis to rodents. With the improved understanding of the human epileptic syndromes, we anticipate that new animal models will be created to study those aspects that cannot be explored on humans. The development of further strategies is necessary to identify better treatments to control seizures and their comorbidities. The ultimate goals are to identify cures and the means to prevent the development of epilepsy whenever possible. Translational studies are key and require the synergy between clinicians and scientists.