A new approach for the metabolomic study of urinary samples using pressurized CEC (pCEC) with gradient elution is proposed as an alternative chromatographic separation tool with higher degree of resolution, selectivity, sensitivity, and efficiency. The pCEC separation of urinary samples was performed on a RP column packed with C18, 5 μm particles with an ACN/water mobile phase containing TFA. The effects of the acid modifiers, applied voltage, mobile phase, and detection wavelength were systematically evaluated using eight spiked standards, as well as urine samples. A typical analytical trial of urine samples from Sprague Dawley (S.D.) rats exposed to high-energy diet was carried out following sample pretreatment. Significant differences in urinary metabolic profiles were observed between the high energy diet-induced obesity rats and the healthy control rats at the 6th wk postdose. Multi-variate statistical analysis revealed the differential metabolites in response to the diet, which were partially validated with the putative standards. This work suggests that such a pCEC-based separation and analysis method may provide a new and cost-effective platform for metabolomic study uniquely positioned between the conventional chromatographic tools such as HPLC, and hyphenated analytical techniques such as LC-MS.
- Pressurized capillary electrochromatography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Clinical Biochemistry