Altered somatic hypermutation and reduced class-switch recombination in exonuclease 1-mutant mice

Philip D. Bardwell, Caroline J. Woo, Kaichun Wei, Ziqiang Li, Alberto Martin, Stephen Z. Sack, Tchaiko Parris, Winfried Edelmann, Matthew D. Scharff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

196 Scopus citations


The generation of protective antibodies requires somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin genes. Here we show that mice mutant for exonuclease 1 (Exo1), which participates in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), have decreased CSR and changes in the characteristics of SHM similar to those previously observed in mice mutant for the MMR protein Msh2. Exo1 is thus the first exonuclease shown to be involved in SHM and CSR. The phenotype of Exo1-/- mice and the finding that Exo1 and Mlh1 are physically associated with mutating variable regions support the idea that Exo1 and MMR participate directly in SHM and CSR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-229
Number of pages6
JournalNature Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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