The immune system has been described to play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the distribution of immunoglobulins and their subclasses in brain tissue has not been explored. In this study, examination of pathologically diagnosed frontal cortex gray matter revealed significantly higher levels of IgM and IgG in late-stage AD (Braak and Braak stages V and VI) compared to age-matched controls. While levels of IgG2 and IgG4 constant region fragments were higher in late-stage AD, concentration of native–state IgG4 with free Fc regions was increased in AD III and VI. RNA analysis did not support parenchymal B-cell production of IgG4 in AD III and V, indicating possible peripheral or meningeal B-cell involvement. Changes in the profile of IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses in AD frontal cortex may provide insight into understanding disease pathogenesis and progression.
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