Adjunctive tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis: Serology, ELISPOT for site-specific lymphocytes, urinary lipoarabinomannan, string test, and fine needle aspiration

Jacqueline M. Achkar, Stephen D. Lawn, Mahomed Yunus S Moosa, Colleen A. Wright, Victoria O. Kasprowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The diagnostic gold standard for active tuberculosis (TB) is the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by culture or molecular methods. However, despite its limited sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy is still the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Consequently, diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB remains challenging in such settings. A number of novel or alternative techniques could provide adjunctive diagnostic use in the context of difficult-to-diagnose TB. These may be especially useful in certain patient groups such as persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and children, who are disproportionably affected by smear-negative and extrapulmonary disease and who are also most adversely affected by delays in TB diagnosis and treatment. We review a selection of these methods that are independent of nucleic acid amplification techniques and could largely be implemented in resource-limited settings in current or adapted versions. Specifically, we discuss the diagnostic use and potential of serologic tests based on detection of antibodies to MTB antigens; interferon gamma release assays using site-specific lymphocytes; detection of lipoarabinomannan, a glycolipid of MTB, in urine; the string test, a novel technique to retrieve lower respiratory tract samples; and fine needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume204
Issue numberSUPPL. 4
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2011

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Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
Serology
Fine Needle Biopsy
Tuberculosis
Lymphocytes
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Interferon-gamma Release Tests
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Glycolipids
Serologic Tests
Sputum
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Respiratory System
Microscopy
Lymph Nodes
HIV
Urine
lipoarabinomannan
Antibodies
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Adjunctive tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis : Serology, ELISPOT for site-specific lymphocytes, urinary lipoarabinomannan, string test, and fine needle aspiration. / Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Lawn, Stephen D.; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S; Wright, Colleen A.; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.

In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, No. SUPPL. 4, 15.11.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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