ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Substance Use Disorder, and Nonprescription Stimulant Use

Judith S. Brook, Elinor B. Balka, Chenshu Zhang, David W. Brook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess whether the relationship of an ADHD diagnosis by adolescence to nonprescription stimulant use in adulthood is direct or indirect, via Conduct Disorder (CD) and/or Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Method: Data were obtained from multiple waves of interviews and questionnaires completed by 551 community-based participants when they were between the mean ages of 14.1 and 36.6 years. Results: The results of the structural equation model (SEM) supported both a direct association between early ADHD and later nonprescription stimulant use (B =.18, z = 2.74) and the relationship from ADHD to later nonprescription stimulant use (B =.01, z = 1.72) via CD and SUD. Conclusion: The longitudinal data supporting these paths suggest that efforts to prevent and treat the misuse of nonprescription stimulants may be more effective if attention is paid to those with a history of ADHD, as well as to those who also had CD and SUD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)776-782
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • ADHD
  • CD
  • SUD
  • nonprescription stimulants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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