Acute Gastrointestinal Graft-vs-Host Disease Is Associated with Increased Enteric Bacterial Bloodstream Infection Density in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients

Anya Levinson, Kerice Pinkney, Zhezhen Jin, Monica Bhatia, Andrew L. Kung, Marc D. Foca, Diane George, James H. Garvin, Jean Sosna, Esra Karamehmet, Chalitha Robinson, Prakash Satwani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Bacterial septicemia remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT). While murine studies have found acute gastrointestinal graft-vs-host disease (aG-GVHD) to be associated with increased incidence of enteric bacterial bloodstream infections (EB-BSI), this association has not been studied in humans. We hypothesized that in patients who developed aG-GVHD, the EB-BSI density after onset of aG-GVHD would be higher than before onset and higher than in patients without acute GVHD (aGVHD). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed data collected on 264 pediatric AlloHCT recipients with malignant and nonmalignant disease. We calculated and compared EB-BSI densities in the following 3 subgroups: patients without aGVHD and patients with aG-GVHD, both before and after onset of aG-GVHD. We also examined the effect of aG-GVHD onset on the first episode of EB-BSI using Cox proportional hazards models. Results. The overall incidence of aG-GVHD was 28.8% (n = 76). Analyses done both at 120 and 180 days post-AlloHCT showed that the EB-BSI density increased after aG-GVHD onset (0.95 infections/person-year before aG-GVHD vs 2.7 infections/person-year after aG-GVHD at day 120 [P =. 006]; 0.95 infections/person-year before aG-GVHD vs 2.26 infections/person-year after aG-GVHD at day 180 [P =. 033]). On multivariate analysis, the onset of aG-GVHD had a positive hazard ratio of 1.47 (P =. 077) on time to first EB-BSI. Conclusions. Our results support the theory that aG-GVHD predisposes pediatric AlloHCT recipients to EB-BSI. Prophylactic agents such as probiotics should be studied prospectively in patients with aG-GVHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-357
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume61
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • AlloHCT
  • BSI
  • GVHD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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