A Validated 3D Printed Laryngeal Suturing Simulator for Endoscopic Laryngeal Cleft Repair

Clare M. Richardson, David A. Zopf, Allison K. Ikeda, Adam van Horn, Katheryn Cohen, Zahra Nourmohammadi, Michel Nassar, Jason S. Park, Kaalan E. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair (ELCR) with endolaryngeal suturing is an advanced surgical skill. This study objective was to assess the validity of 3-dimensionally (3D) printed laryngeal suturing simulator for ELCR. Study Design: Development and validation of a simulator for ELCR. Methods: An ELCR model was developed using 3D printed and readily available materials. Participants were surveyed before and after a simulation session using five-point Likert scale questions. Performance data was assessed using blinded expert video review and rated using a novel objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) for endoscopic laryngeal suturing. Results: Twenty-one participants ranging from residents to attendings completed the simulation session. Survey respondents reported on a five-point Likert scale that the model was “easy to use” and “quite realistic” (both mean of 4). Confidence improved significantly in 86% of participants (p < 0.01). Overall OSATS scores (out of a total of 55) showed a median improvement in technical skills of 11.7 points (p = 0.004). OSATS demonstrated good intra-rater (κ = 0.689 and 0.677) and moderate inter-rater (κ = 0.573) reliability. Completion times improved from the first to the last suture by a median time of 512 to 350 s (decrease of 202 s, p = 0.002). Participants with no prior ELCR experience improved more than those with in vivo experience. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the validity of a simulator utilizing 3D printed larynges for ELCR. A novel OSATS for endoscopic laryngeal suturing was successfully implemented. Confidence, technical skills, and completion times improved with the use of the model across a variety of participants. Laryngoscope, 133:785–791, 2023.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)785-791
Number of pages7
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • 3D printing
  • education
  • endoscopic suturing
  • laryngeal cleft
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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