A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: Development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale

Katharine A. Phillips, Eric Hollander, Steven A. Rasmussen, Bonnie R. Aronowitz, Concetta DeCaria, Wayne K. Goodman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

427 Scopus citations


The authors developed the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS), a 12-item semistructured clinician- rated instrument designed to rate severity of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The scale was administered to 125 subjects with BDD, and interviews with 15 subjects were rated by 3 other raters. Test-rarest reliability was assessed in 30 subjects. Other scales were administered to assess convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change was evaluated in a study of fluvoxamine. Each item was frequently endorsed across a range of severity. Good interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency were obtained. BDD-YBOCS scores correlated with global severity scores but not with a measure of general psychopathology; they were modestly positively correlated with depression severity scores. Three factors accounted for 59.6 percent of the variance. The scale was sensitive to change in BDD severity. The BDD-YBOCS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of BDD severity and is a suitable outcome measure in treatment studies of BDD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-22
Number of pages6
JournalPsychopharmacology bulletin
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1997



  • assessment
  • body dysmorphic disorder
  • obsessive compulsive disorder
  • somatoform disorders
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this