A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk

Mariam S. Latuga, Alison Stuebe, Patrick C. Seed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function of these breast milk microbiota for the infant are only partially understood. Here, we appraise hypotheses regarding the formation of breast milk microbiota, including retrograde infant-to-mother transfer and enteromammary trafficking, and we review current knowledge of mechanisms determining the extent of breast milk microbiota transfer from mother to infant. We highlight known functions of constituents in the breast milk microbiota - to enhance immunity, liberate nutrients, synergize with breast milk oligosaccharides to enhance intestinal barrier function, and strengthen a functional gut-brain axis. We also consider the pathophysiology of maternal mastitis with respect to a dysbiosis or abnormal shift in the breast milk microbiota. In conclusion, through a complex, highly evolved process in the early stages of discovery, mothers transfer the breast milk microbiota to their infants to impact infant growth and development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-73
Number of pages6
JournalSeminars in Reproductive Medicine
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Microbiota
Human Milk
Mothers
Dysbiosis
Mastitis
Child Development
Oligosaccharides
Growth and Development
Immunity
Bacteria
Food
Skin

Keywords

  • enteromammary trafficking
  • immune function
  • mastitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk. / Latuga, Mariam S.; Stuebe, Alison; Seed, Patrick C.

In: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2014, p. 68-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Latuga, Mariam S. ; Stuebe, Alison ; Seed, Patrick C. / A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk. In: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 68-73.
@article{5fa361b7fc7d4754a51a2b6848677012,
title = "A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk",
abstract = "Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function of these breast milk microbiota for the infant are only partially understood. Here, we appraise hypotheses regarding the formation of breast milk microbiota, including retrograde infant-to-mother transfer and enteromammary trafficking, and we review current knowledge of mechanisms determining the extent of breast milk microbiota transfer from mother to infant. We highlight known functions of constituents in the breast milk microbiota - to enhance immunity, liberate nutrients, synergize with breast milk oligosaccharides to enhance intestinal barrier function, and strengthen a functional gut-brain axis. We also consider the pathophysiology of maternal mastitis with respect to a dysbiosis or abnormal shift in the breast milk microbiota. In conclusion, through a complex, highly evolved process in the early stages of discovery, mothers transfer the breast milk microbiota to their infants to impact infant growth and development.",
keywords = "enteromammary trafficking, immune function, mastitis",
author = "Latuga, {Mariam S.} and Alison Stuebe and Seed, {Patrick C.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1055/s-0033-1361824",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "68--73",
journal = "Seminars in Reproductive Medicine",
issn = "1526-8004",
publisher = "Thieme Medical Publishers",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk

AU - Latuga, Mariam S.

AU - Stuebe, Alison

AU - Seed, Patrick C.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function of these breast milk microbiota for the infant are only partially understood. Here, we appraise hypotheses regarding the formation of breast milk microbiota, including retrograde infant-to-mother transfer and enteromammary trafficking, and we review current knowledge of mechanisms determining the extent of breast milk microbiota transfer from mother to infant. We highlight known functions of constituents in the breast milk microbiota - to enhance immunity, liberate nutrients, synergize with breast milk oligosaccharides to enhance intestinal barrier function, and strengthen a functional gut-brain axis. We also consider the pathophysiology of maternal mastitis with respect to a dysbiosis or abnormal shift in the breast milk microbiota. In conclusion, through a complex, highly evolved process in the early stages of discovery, mothers transfer the breast milk microbiota to their infants to impact infant growth and development.

AB - Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function of these breast milk microbiota for the infant are only partially understood. Here, we appraise hypotheses regarding the formation of breast milk microbiota, including retrograde infant-to-mother transfer and enteromammary trafficking, and we review current knowledge of mechanisms determining the extent of breast milk microbiota transfer from mother to infant. We highlight known functions of constituents in the breast milk microbiota - to enhance immunity, liberate nutrients, synergize with breast milk oligosaccharides to enhance intestinal barrier function, and strengthen a functional gut-brain axis. We also consider the pathophysiology of maternal mastitis with respect to a dysbiosis or abnormal shift in the breast milk microbiota. In conclusion, through a complex, highly evolved process in the early stages of discovery, mothers transfer the breast milk microbiota to their infants to impact infant growth and development.

KW - enteromammary trafficking

KW - immune function

KW - mastitis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84891787698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84891787698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1055/s-0033-1361824

DO - 10.1055/s-0033-1361824

M3 - Article

C2 - 24390923

AN - SCOPUS:84891787698

VL - 32

SP - 68

EP - 73

JO - Seminars in Reproductive Medicine

JF - Seminars in Reproductive Medicine

SN - 1526-8004

IS - 1

ER -