A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cardiac contractility modulation in patients with systolic heart failure: Rationale, design, and baseline patient characteristics

William T. Abraham, Daniel Burkhoff, Koonlawee Nademanee, Peter Carson, Robert Bourge, Kenneth A. Ellenbogen, Michael Parides, Alan Kadish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations


Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are nonexcitatory electrical signals delivered during the cardiac absolute refractory period that enhance the strength of cardiac muscular contraction. Prior research in experimental and human heart failure has shown that CCM signals normalize phosphorylation of key proteins and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in regulation of calcium cycling and contraction. The results of prior clinical studies of CCM have supported its safety and efficacy. A large-scale clinical study, the FIX-HF-5 study, is currently underway to test the safety and efficacy of this treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the system used to deliver CCM signals, the implant procedure, and the details and rationale of the FIX-HF-5 study design. Baseline characteristics for patients randomized in this trial are also presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-648.e1
JournalAmerican heart journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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