A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on the efficacy of recombinant human antithrombin in heparin-resistant patients scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery necessitating cardiopulmonary bypass

Michael S. Avidan, Jerrold H. Levy, Jens Scholz, Elise Delphin, Peter M.J. Rosseel, Michael B. Howie, Irwin Gratz, Charles R. Bush, Nikolaos Skubas, Gabriel S. Aldea, Michael Licina, Laura J. Bonfiglio, Daniel K. Kajdasz, Elizabeth Ott, George J. Despotis

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Abstract

Background: The study evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human antithrombin (rhAT) for restoring heparin responsiveness in heparin resistant patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in heparin-resistant patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Heparin resistance was diagnosed when the activated clotting time was less than 480 s after 400 U/kg heparin. Fifty-four heparin-resistant patients were randomized. One cohort received 75 U/kg rhAT, and the other received normal saline. If the activated clotting time remained less than 480 s, this was considered treatment failure, and 2 units fresh frozen plasma was transfused. Patients were monitored for adverse events. Results: Only 19% of patients in the rhAT group received fresh frozen plasma, compared with 81% of patients in the placebo group (P < 0.001). During their hospitalization, 48% of patients in the rhAT group received fresh frozen plasma, compared with 85% of patients in the placebo group (P = 0.009). Patients in the placebo group required higher heparin doses (P < 0.005) for anticoagulation. There was no increase in serious adverse events associated with rhAT. There was increased blood loss 12 h postoperatively (P = 0.05) with a trend toward increased 24-h bleeding in the rhAT group (P = 0.06). There was no difference between the groups in blood and platelet transfusions. Conclusion: Treatment with 75 U/kg rhAT is effective in restoring heparin responsiveness and promoting therapeutic anticoagulation in the majority of heparin-resistant patients. Treating heparin-resistant patients with rhAT may decrease the requirement for heparin and fresh frozen plasma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalAnesthesiology
Volume102
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Avidan, M. S., Levy, J. H., Scholz, J., Delphin, E., Rosseel, P. M. J., Howie, M. B., Gratz, I., Bush, C. R., Skubas, N., Aldea, G. S., Licina, M., Bonfiglio, L. J., Kajdasz, D. K., Ott, E., & Despotis, G. J. (2005). A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on the efficacy of recombinant human antithrombin in heparin-resistant patients scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery necessitating cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology, 102(2), 276-284. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200502000-00007