A Longitudinal Study on the Association of Interrelated Factors among Frailty Dimensions, Cognitive Domains, Cognitive Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality

Jen Hau Chen, Hua San Shih, Jennifer Tu, Jeng Min Chiou, Shu Hui Chang, Wei Li Hsu, Liang Chuan Lai, Ta Fu Chen, Yen Ching Chen, Emmeline Ayers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Cognitive frailty integrating impaired cognitive domains and frailty dimensions has not been explored. Objective: This study aimed to explore 1) associations among frailty dimensions and cognitive domains over time and 2) the extended definitions of cognitive frailty for predicting all-cause mortality. Methods: This four-year cohort study recruited 521 older adults at baseline (2011-2013). We utilized 1) generalized linear mixed models exploring associations of frailty dimensions (physical dimension: modified from Fried et al.; psychosocial dimension: integrating self-rated health, mood, and social relationship and support; global frailty: combining physical and psychosocial frailty) with cognition (global and domain-specific) over time and 2) time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models assessing associations between extended definitions of cognitive frailty (cognitive domains-frailty dimensions) and all-cause mortality. Results: At baseline, the prevalence was 3.0% for physical frailty and 37.6% for psychosocial frailty. Greater physical frailty was associated with poor global cognition (adjusted odds ratio = 1.43-3.29, β: -1.07), logical memory (β: -0.14 to -0.10), and executive function (β: -0.51 to -0.12). Greater psychosocial frailty was associated with poor global cognition (β: -0.44) and attention (β: -0.15 to -0.13). Three newly proposed definitions of cognitive frailty, 'mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-psychosocial frailty,' 'MCI-global frailty,' and 'impaired verbal fluency-global frailty,' outperformed traditional cognitive frailty for predicting all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.49, 6.83, 3.29 versus 4.87; AIC = 224.3, 221.8, 226.1 versus 228.1). Conclusion: Notably, extended definitions of cognitive frailty proposed by this study better predict all-cause mortality in older adults than the traditional definition of cognitive frailty, highlighting the importance of psychosocial frailty to reduce mortality in older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1795-1809
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume84
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • cohort study
  • frailty
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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