3% Hypertonic saline versus normal saline in inpatient bronchiolitis: A randomized controlled trial

Alyssa H. Silver, Nora Esteban-Cruciani, Gabriella Azzarone, Lindsey C. Douglas, Diana S. Lee, Sheila K. Liewehr, Joanne M. Nazif, Ilir Agalliu, Susan Villegas, Hai Jung H. Rhim, Michael L. Rinke, Katherine O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchiolitis, the most common reason for hospitalization in children younger than 1 year in the United States, has no proven therapies effective beyond supportive care. We aimed to investigate the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) on length of stay (LOS) in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in an urban tertiary care children's hospital in 227 infants younger than 12 months old admitted with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis (190 completed the study); 113 infants were randomized to HS (93 completed the study), and 114 to NS (97 completed the study). Subjects received 4 mL nebulized 3% HS or 4 mL 0.9% NS every 4 hours from enrollment until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was median LOS. Secondary outcomes were total adverse events, subdivided as clinical worsening and readmissions. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were similar in groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, median LOS (interquartile range) of HS and NS groups was 2.1 (1.2-4.6) vs 2.1 days (1.2-3.8), respectively, P =.73. We confirmed findings with per-protocol analysis, HS and NS groups with 2.0 (1.3-3.3) and 2.0 days (1.2-3.0), respectively, P =.96. Seven-day readmission rate for HS and NS groups were 4.3% and 3.1%, respectively, P =.77. Clinical worsening events were similar between groups (9% vs 8%, P =.97). CONCLUSIONS: Among infants admitted to the hospital with bronchiolitis, treatment with nebulized 3% HS compared with NS had no difference in LOS or 7-day readmission rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1036-1043
Number of pages8
JournalPediatrics
Volume136
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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